Robert Nozick cytaty

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Robert Nozick

Data urodzenia: 16. Listopad 1938
Data zgonu: 23. Styczeń 2002

Reklama

Robert Nozick – amerykański filozof, profesor Uniwersytetu Harvarda, przedstawiciel libertarianizmu, autor książki Anarchia, państwo, utopia. Należy do czołowych filozofów politycznych XX w.

W swojej najważniejszej pracy, Anarchia, państwo, utopia , jedynego sensu, a zarazem konieczności istnienia państwa upatrywał, podobnie jak John Locke, w jego roli związanej z ochroną obywateli. Teoria stanu natury Locke'a porównuje okoliczności powstania państwa do konkurencji pomiędzy agencjami ochrony, z których jedna zdobyła monopol i tym samym stała się państwem. U Nozicka Locke'owska agencja ochrony nie może być traktowana jako państwo, dopóki nie rozciągnie usług ochrony na wszystkich obywateli, nawet gdy wymaga to "swoistej redystrybucji". W owym dziele krytykuje Teorię sprawiedliwości Johna Rawlsa.

Robert Nozick poddaje krytyce wszelkie bardziej rozwinięte struktury państwowe wybiegające poza funkcje ochrony życia i własności .

Autor również takich prac jak The Examined Life czy Invariances: The Structure of the Objective World.

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Cytaty Robert Nozick

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„Our principles fix what our life stands for, our aims create the light our life is bathed in, and our rationality, both individual and coordinate, defines and symbolizes the distance we have come from mere animality.“

—  Robert Nozick
Context: Our principles fix what our life stands for, our aims create the light our life is bathed in, and our rationality, both individual and coordinate, defines and symbolizes the distance we have come from mere animality. It is by these means that our lives come to more than what they instrumentally yield. And by meaning more, our lives yield more. The Nature of Rationality (1993), Ch. V : Instrumental Rationality and Its Limits; Rationality's Imagination, p. 181

„What persons may and may not do to one another limits what they may do through the apparatus of a state, or do to establish such an apparatus.“

—  Robert Nozick
Context: Some anarchists have claimed not merely that we would be better off without a state, but that any state necessarily violates people's moral rights and hence is intrinsically immoral. Our starting point then, though nonpolitical, is by intention far from nonmoral. Moral philosophy sets the background for, and boundaries of, political philosophy. What persons may and may not do to one another limits what they may do through the apparatus of a state, or do to establish such an apparatus. Ch. 1 : Why State of Nature Theory?; Political Philosophy, p. 6

„Justice in holdings is historical; it depends upon what actually has happened.“

—  Robert Nozick
Context: Justice in holdings is historical; it depends upon what actually has happened. We shall return to this point later. Ch. 7 : Distributive Justice, Section I, The Entitlement Theory, p. 152

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„Individuals have rights and there are things no person or group may do to them (without violating their rights).“

—  Robert Nozick
Context: Individuals have rights and there are things no person or group may do to them (without violating their rights). So strong and far-reaching are these rights that they raise the question of what, if anything, the state and its officials may do. How much room do individual rights leave for the state? Preface, p. ix

„Our starting point then, though nonpolitical, is by intention far from nonmoral.“

—  Robert Nozick
Context: Some anarchists have claimed not merely that we would be better off without a state, but that any state necessarily violates people's moral rights and hence is intrinsically immoral. Our starting point then, though nonpolitical, is by intention far from nonmoral. Moral philosophy sets the background for, and boundaries of, political philosophy. What persons may and may not do to one another limits what they may do through the apparatus of a state, or do to establish such an apparatus. Ch. 1 : Why State of Nature Theory?; Political Philosophy, p. 6

„No one is entitled to a holding except by (repeated) applications of 1 and 2.“

—  Robert Nozick
Context: 1. A person who acquires a holding in accordance with the principle of justice in acquisition is entitled to that holding. 2. A person who acquires a holding in accordance with the principle of justice in transfer, from someone else entitled to the holding, is entitled to the holding. 3. No one is entitled to a holding except by (repeated) applications of 1 and 2. Ch. 7 : Distributive Justice, Section I, The Entitlement Theory, p. 151

„None of these are permissible modes of transition from one situation to another.“

—  Robert Nozick
Context: Some people steal from others, or defraud them, or enslave them, seizing their product and preventing them from living as they choose, or forcibly exclude others from competing in exchanges. None of these are permissible modes of transition from one situation to another. Ch. 7 : Distributive Justice, Section I, The Entitlement Theory, p. 152

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„Since I do not assume that there are such principles, I do not presume that the political realm will whither away.“

—  Robert Nozick
Context: One persistent strand in utopian thinking, as we have often mentioned, is the feeling that there is some set of principles obvious enough to be accepted by all men of good will, precise enough to give unambiguous guidance in particular situations, clear enough so that all will realize its dictates, and complete enough to cover all problems which actually arise. Since I do not assume that there are such principles, I do not presume that the political realm will whither away. The messiness of the details of a political apparatus and the details of how it is to be controlled and limited do not fit easily into one's hopes for a sleek, simple utopian scheme. Ch. 10 : A Framework for Utopia; Utopian Means and Ends, p. 330

„How dare any state or group of individuals do more. Or less.“

—  Robert Nozick
Context: Is not the minimal state, the framework for utopia, an inspiring vision? The minimal state treats us as inviolate individuals, who may not be used in certain ways by others as means or tools or instruments or resources; it treats us as persons having individual right with the dignity this constitutes. Treating us with respect by respecting our rights, it allows us, individually or with whom we please, to choose our life and to realize our ends and our conception of ourselves, insofar as we can, aided by the voluntary cooperation of other individuals possessing the same dignity. How dare any state or group of individuals do more. Or less. Ch. 10 : A Framework for Utopia; Utopia and the Minimal State, p. 333

„Each community must win and hold the voluntary adherence of its members. No pattern is imposed on everyone, and the result will be one pattern if and only if everyone voluntarily chooses to live in accordance with that pattern of community.“

—  Robert Nozick
Context: Some communities will be abandoned, others will struggle along, others will split, others will flourish, gain members, and be duplicated elsewhere. Each community must win and hold the voluntary adherence of its members. No pattern is imposed on everyone, and the result will be one pattern if and only if everyone voluntarily chooses to live in accordance with that pattern of community. Ch. 10 : A Framework for Utopia; Design Devices and Filter Devices, p. 316

„Is not the minimal state, the framework for utopia, an inspiring vision?“

—  Robert Nozick
Context: Is not the minimal state, the framework for utopia, an inspiring vision? The minimal state treats us as inviolate individuals, who may not be used in certain ways by others as means or tools or instruments or resources; it treats us as persons having individual right with the dignity this constitutes. Treating us with respect by respecting our rights, it allows us, individually or with whom we please, to choose our life and to realize our ends and our conception of ourselves, insofar as we can, aided by the voluntary cooperation of other individuals possessing the same dignity. How dare any state or group of individuals do more. Or less. Ch. 10 : A Framework for Utopia; Utopia and the Minimal State, p. 333

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