Michael Faraday cytaty

Michael Faraday Fotografia
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Michael Faraday

Data urodzenia: 22. Wrzesień 1791
Data zgonu: 25. Sierpień 1867

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Michael Faraday – fizyk i chemik angielski, eksperymentator, samouk. Profesor Instytutu Królewskiego i Uniwersytetu Oksfordzkiego, członek Royal Society, w młodości asystent H.B. Davy’ego.

Największe znaczenie miały prace Faradaya dotyczące elektryczności. W 1831 r. odkrył zjawisko indukcji elektromagnetycznej, co przyczyniło się do powstania elektrodynamiki. W latach 1833-1834 sformułował prawa elektrolizy i wprowadził nomenklaturę dla opisu tego zjawiska.

Stworzył podstawy elektrochemii. Faraday odkrył również zjawisko samoindukcji, zbudował pierwszy model silnika elektrycznego. W 1845 r. stwierdził, że diamagnetyzm jest powszechną właściwością materii, odkryty zaś przez niego paramagnetyzm – właściwością szczególną niektórych jej rodzajów. Faraday wprowadził pojęcie linii sił pola i wysunął twierdzenie, że ładunki elektryczne działają na siebie za pomocą takiego pola. W 1848 r. odkrył zjawisko magnetooptyczne.

W 1825 roku odkrył benzen, wydzielił naftalen, heksachloroetan, koloidalne złoto. Był też twórcą prostej metody skraplania gazów.

Prowadził pionierskie prace nad stalami stopowymi i szkłem optycznym. Stwierdził katalityczne działanie światła w reakcjach chlorowców na węglowodory .

2 czerwca 1821 ożenił się z Sarą Barnard; związek był bezdzietny. Faraday był członkiem sandemanianów

Cytaty Michael Faraday

„Będę z Chrystusem i to wystarczy.“

— Michael Faraday
ostatnie słowa wypowiedziane przed śmiercią.

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„Nothing is too wonderful to be true, if it be consistent with the laws of nature“

— Michael Faraday
Context: ALL THIS IS A DREAM. Still examine it by a few experiments. Nothing is too wonderful to be true, if it be consistent with the laws of nature; and in such things as these, experiment is the best test of such consistency. Laboratory journal entry #10,040 (19 March 1849); published in The Life and Letters of Faraday (1870) Vol. II, edited by Henry Bence Jones [https://archive.org/stream/lifelettersoffar02joneiala#page/248/mode/2up/search/wonderful], p. 248. This has sometimes been quoted partially as "Nothing is too wonderful to be true," and can be seen engraved above the doorway of the south entrance to the Humanities Building at UCLA in Los Angeles, California.[http://lit250v.library.ucla.edu/islandora/object/edu.ucla.library.universityArchives.historicPhotographs%3A67]

„It teaches us first by tutors and books, to learn that which is already known to others, and then by the light and methods which belong to science to learn for ourselves and for others; so making a fruitful return to man in the future for that which we have obtained from the men of the past.“

— Michael Faraday
Context: We learn by such results as these, what is the kind of education that science offers to man. It teaches us to be neglectful of nothing, not to despise the small beginnings — they precede of necessity all great things. Vesicles make clouds; they are trifles light as air, but then they make drops, and drops make showers, rain makes torrents and rivers, and these can alter the face of a country, and even keep the ocean to its proper fulness and use. It teaches a continual comparison of the small and great, and that under differences almost approaching the infinite, for the small as often contains the great in principle, as the great does the small; and thus the mind becomes comprehensive. It teaches to deduce principles carefully, to hold them firmly, or to suspend the judgment, to discover and obey law, and by it to be bold in applying to the greatest what we know of the smallest. It teaches us first by tutors and books, to learn that which is already known to others, and then by the light and methods which belong to science to learn for ourselves and for others; so making a fruitful return to man in the future for that which we have obtained from the men of the past. Lecture notes of 1858, quoted in The Life and Letters of Faraday (1870) by Bence Jones, Vol. 2, p. 403

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„I am, I hope, very thankful that in the withdrawal of the powers and things of life, the good hope is left with me, which makes the contemplation of death a comfort — not a fear.“

— Michael Faraday
Context: I am, I hope, very thankful that in the withdrawal of the powers and things of life, the good hope is left with me, which makes the contemplation of death a comfort — not a fear. Such peace is alone the gift of God, and as it is He who gives it, why should we be afraid? His unspeakable gift in His beloved Son is the ground of no doubtful hope, and there is the rest for those who )like you and me) are drawing near the latter end of our terms here below. I do not know, however why I should join you with me in years. I forget your age, but this I know (and feel as well) that next Sabbath day (the 22nd) I shall complete my 70th year. I can hardly think myself so old as I write to you — so much of cheerful spirit, ease and general health is left to me, and if my memory fails, why it causes that I forget troubles as well as pleasure and the end is, I am happy and content. Letter to Auguste de la Rive (1861), as quoted in The Philosopher's Tree : A Selection of Michael Faraday's Writings (1999) edited by Peter Day, p. 199

„Speculations? I have none. I am resting on certainties.“

— Michael Faraday
Context: Speculations? I have none. I am resting on certainties. I know whom I have believed and am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day. When asked about his speculations on life beyond death, as quoted in The Homiletic Review‎ (April 1896), p. 442

„I have far more confidence in the one man who works mentally and bodily at a matter than in the six who merely talk about it“

— Michael Faraday
Context: I have far more confidence in the one man who works mentally and bodily at a matter than in the six who merely talk about it — and I therefore hope and am fully persuaded that you are working. Nature is our kindest friend and best critic in experimental science if we only allow her intimations to fall unbiased on our minds. Nothing is so good as an experiment which, whilst it sets an error right, gives us (as a reward for our humility in being reproved) an absolute advancement in knowledge. Letter to John Tyndall (19 April 1851); letter 2411, edited by

„Among those points of self-education which take up the form of mental discipline, there is one of great importance, and, moreover, difficult to deal with, because it involves an internal conflict, and equally touches our vanity and our ease. It consists in the tendency to deceive ourselves regarding all we wish for, and the necessity of resistance to these desires.“

— Michael Faraday
Context: Among those points of self-education which take up the form of mental discipline, there is one of great importance, and, moreover, difficult to deal with, because it involves an internal conflict, and equally touches our vanity and our ease. It consists in the tendency to deceive ourselves regarding all we wish for, and the necessity of resistance to these desires. It is impossible for any one who has not been constrained, by the course of his occupation and thoughts, to a habit of continual self-correction, to be aware of the amount of error in relation to judgment arising from this tendency. The force of the temptation which urges us to seek for such evidence and appearances as are in favour of our desires, and to disregard those which oppose them, is wonderfully great. In this respect we are all, more or less, active promoters of error. In place of practising wholesome self-abnegation, we ever make the wish the father to the thought: we receive as friendly that which agrees with, we resist with dislike that which opposes us; whereas the very reverse is required by every dictate of common sense. Royal Institution Lecture On Mental Education (6 May 1854), as reprinted in Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Physics, by Michael Faraday, 1859, pp 474-475, emphasis verbatim.

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