Buenaventura Durruti cytaty

Buenaventura Durruti Fotografia
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Buenaventura Durruti

Data urodzenia: 14. Lipiec 1896
Data zgonu: 20. Listopad 1936

Reklama

Buenaventura Durruti Dumange – hiszpański anarchista, działacz polityczny i związkowy, przywódca CNT-FAI.

Buenaventura Durruti urodził się w rodzinie robotników kolejowych. Zaczął pracować w wieku 14 lat, od 1916 r. również na kolei. Od wczesnych lat młodzieńczych przejawiał zainteresowanie walką o prawa socjalne i związkowe. W 1917 r. Durruti był aktywnym uczestnikiem strajku organizowanego przez związek zawodowy UGT . Strajk został stłumiony przez rząd hiszpański przy pomocy wojska, które zabiło 70 i zraniło ponad 500 ludzi, natomiast 2000 zostało uwięzionych bez procesu. Durruti zbiegł wówczas do Francji.

Po powrocie do Barcelony w 1920 r. Durruti związał się z anarchosyndykalistycznym związkiem zawodowym CNT. W odpowiedzi na siłowe metody władz, w 1922 r. razem z innymi anarchistami założył grupę Los Solidarios . W 1923 r. grupa powiązana została z zabójstwem arcybiskupa Juana Soldevila. Po wprowadzeniu dyktatury wojskowej Primo de Rivery, Durruti i Ascaso zbiegli za granicę, początkowo do Argentyny. W czasie emigracji kilkakrotnie byli wypędzani z krajów pobytu lub aresztowani. W 1924 r. w Paryżu usiłowali bez powodzenia dokonać zamachu bombowego na króla Hiszpanii Alfonsa XIII. Durruti powrócił do Hiszpanii w 1931 r. po upadku dyktatury i monarchii, stając się jednym z głównych hiszpańskich działaczy robotniczych. Zajął stanowisko na dominującym anarchizującym skrzydle CNT, zbliżonym do Iberyjskiej Federacji Anarchistycznej , sam jednak do niej nie należał.

Po początkowym okresie entuzjazmu po proklamowaniu II Republiki hiszpańskiej, organizacje anarchistyczne i robotnicze stały się wrogie republice, nie realizującej ich postulatów i tłumiącej wystąpienia siłą. Sytuacja w kraju była w dalszym ciągu niespokojna. Durruti w tym okresie był organizatorem związkowym, agitatorem i wiecowym mówcą, konspiratorem i bojownikiem, wielokrotnie zatrzymywanym lub aresztowanym przez policję. Po nieudanym powstaniu górników w Katalonii w styczniu 1932 r., Durruti razem ze 110 działaczami robotniczymi został prewencyjne deportowany do kolonii hiszpańskich, skąd powrócił w kwietniu. Organizował następnie Rewolucję Libertarną w Saragossie w dniach 8 do 13 grudnia 1933 r., po upadku której CNT została zdelegalizowana.

Po puczu generała Franco i wybuchu wojny domowej w Hiszpanii, CNT i FAI wspólnie organizowały oddziały milicji robotniczej. 19 i 20 lipca 1936 r. oddziały milicji pod dowództwem Durrutiego pokonały wystąpienie garnizonu wojskowego w Barcelonie, między innymi atakując koszary Ataranzaras i oblegając przez 33 godziny Hotel Colon. Następnie Durruti przystąpił do dalszej organizacji milicji i 23 lipca przygotował wymarsz na Saragossę na froncie aragońskim, dowodząc ochotniczą kolumną anarchistycznych milicji . Gdy rząd opuszczał zagrożony Madryt, do obrony stolicy skierowana została właśnie kolumna Durrutiego. Podczas walk 19 listopada 1936 r. został śmiertelnie ranny. Zmarł następnego dnia, 20 listopada w szpitalu urządzonym w hotelu Ritz. Według jednej z wersji został postrzelony przez snajpera w niejasnych okolicznościach, które nie pozwalają wykluczyć zamachu ze strony frankistów bądź stalinistów. Rozeszły się również pogłoski, że poległ z ręki własnego żołnierza, któremu nie podobała się surowa dyscyplina, jaką wprowadzał. Antony Beevor w swoim dziele o wojnie domowej w Hiszpanii stawia tezę, że śmierć Durrutiego była dziełem przypadku – odbezpieczony uchwyt pistoletu maszynowego miał zahaczyć o drzwi samochodu i wypalić Durrutiemu prosto w pierś.

Jego pogrzeb, poprzedzony transportem ciała do Barcelony, stał się ostatnią wielką manifestacją anarchistów w Hiszpanii.

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Cytaty Buenaventura Durruti

„Wolność nie zstąpi do ludzi, to ludzie muszą wznieść się ku wolności.“

— Buenaventura Durruti
Źródło: Anarchistka w drodze do wolności, praca zbiorowa, „Przekrój” nr 37, 10 września 2012.

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„It is possible that only a hundred of us will survive, but with that hundred we shall enter Saragossa, beat Fascism and proclaim libertarian communism.“

— Buenaventura Durruti
Context: It is possible that only a hundred of us will survive, but with that hundred we shall enter Saragossa, beat Fascism and proclaim libertarian communism. I will be the first to enter Saragossa; I will proclaim the free commune. We shall subordinate ourselves neither at Madrid nor Barcelona, neither to Azaña nor Companys. If they wish, they can live in peace with us; if not, we shall go to Madrid … We shall show you, bolsheviks, how to make a revolution. Interview with Mikhail Koltsov (July 1936), as quoted inThe Spanish Civil War (1994) by Hugh Thomas, p. 305

„There are only two roads, victory for the working class, freedom, or victory for the fascists which means tyranny.“

— Buenaventura Durruti
Context: There are only two roads, victory for the working class, freedom, or victory for the fascists which means tyranny. Both combatants know what's in store for the loser. We are ready to end fascism once and for all, even in spite of the Republican government.

„For you must not forget that we can also build.“

— Buenaventura Durruti
Context: We have always lived in slums and holes in the wall. We will know how to accommodate ourselves for a while. For you must not forget that we can also build. It is we who built these palaces and cities, here in Spain and America and everywhere. We, the workers. We can build others to take their place. And better ones. We are not in the least afraid of ruins. We are going to inherit the earth; there is not the slightest doubt about that. The bourgeoisie might blast and ruin its own world before it leaves the stage of history. We carry a new world here, in our hearts. That world is growing in this minute.

„From my earliest years, the first thing that I saw was suffering.“

— Buenaventura Durruti
Context: From my earliest years, the first thing that I saw was suffering. And if I couldn't rebel when I was a child, it was only because I was an unaware being then. But the sorrows of my grandparents and parents were recorded in my memory during those years of unawareness. How many times did I see our mother cry because she couldn't give us the bread that we asked for! And yet our father worked without resting for a minute. Why couldn't we eat the bread that we needed if our father worked so hard? That was the first question whose answer I found in social injustice. And, since that same injustice exists today, thirty years later, I don't see why, now that I'm conscious of this, that I should stop fighting to abolish it. I don't want to remind you of the hardships suffered by our parents until we got older and could help out the family. But then we had to serve the so-called fatherland. The first was Santiago. I still remember mother weeping. But even more strongly etched in my memory are the words of our sick grandfather, who sat there, disabled and next to the heater, punching his legs in anger as he watched his grandson go off to Morocco, while the rich bought workers' sons to take their children's place … Don't you see why I'll continue fighting as long as these social injustices exist? Letter to his family (31 October 1931) http://www.skeptic.ca/Durruti.htm

„We are giving Hitler and Mussolini far more worry with our revolution than the whole Red Army of Russia. We are setting an example to the German and Italian working class on how to deal with Fascism.“

— Buenaventura Durruti
Context: We know what we want. To us it means nothing that there is a Soviet Union somewhere in the world, for the sake of whose peace and tranquility the workers of Germany and China were sacrificed to Fascist barbarians by Stalin. We want revolution here in Spain, right now, not maybe after the next European war. We are giving Hitler and Mussolini far more worry with our revolution than the whole Red Army of Russia. We are setting an example to the German and Italian working class on how to deal with Fascism.

„Don't you see why I'll continue fighting as long as these social injustices exist?“

— Buenaventura Durruti
Context: From my earliest years, the first thing that I saw was suffering. And if I couldn't rebel when I was a child, it was only because I was an unaware being then. But the sorrows of my grandparents and parents were recorded in my memory during those years of unawareness. How many times did I see our mother cry because she couldn't give us the bread that we asked for! And yet our father worked without resting for a minute. Why couldn't we eat the bread that we needed if our father worked so hard? That was the first question whose answer I found in social injustice. And, since that same injustice exists today, thirty years later, I don't see why, now that I'm conscious of this, that I should stop fighting to abolish it. I don't want to remind you of the hardships suffered by our parents until we got older and could help out the family. But then we had to serve the so-called fatherland. The first was Santiago. I still remember mother weeping. But even more strongly etched in my memory are the words of our sick grandfather, who sat there, disabled and next to the heater, punching his legs in anger as he watched his grandson go off to Morocco, while the rich bought workers' sons to take their children's place … Don't you see why I'll continue fighting as long as these social injustices exist? Letter to his family (31 October 1931) http://www.skeptic.ca/Durruti.htm

Reklama

„We shall show you, bolsheviks, how to make a revolution.“

— Buenaventura Durruti
Context: It is possible that only a hundred of us will survive, but with that hundred we shall enter Saragossa, beat Fascism and proclaim libertarian communism. I will be the first to enter Saragossa; I will proclaim the free commune. We shall subordinate ourselves neither at Madrid nor Barcelona, neither to Azaña nor Companys. If they wish, they can live in peace with us; if not, we shall go to Madrid … We shall show you, bolsheviks, how to make a revolution. Interview with Mikhail Koltsov (July 1936), as quoted inThe Spanish Civil War (1994) by Hugh Thomas, p. 305

„I have been an Anarchist all my life. I hope I have remained one.“

— Buenaventura Durruti
Context: I have been an Anarchist all my life. I hope I have remained one. I should consider it very sad indeed, had I to turn into a general and rule the men with a military rod. They have come to me voluntarily, they are ready to stake their lives in our antifascist fight. I believe, as I always have, in freedom. The freedom which rests on the sense of responsibility. I consider discipline indispensable, but it must be inner discipline, motivated by a common purpose and a strong feeling of comradeship. On his military leadership against fascist troops in Spain, as quoted in "Durruti Is Dead, Yet Living" (1936) http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/Goldman/Writings/Essays/durruti.html, by Emma Goldman

„We carry a new world here, in our hearts. That world is growing in this minute.“

— Buenaventura Durruti
Context: We have always lived in slums and holes in the wall. We will know how to accommodate ourselves for a while. For you must not forget that we can also build. It is we who built these palaces and cities, here in Spain and America and everywhere. We, the workers. We can build others to take their place. And better ones. We are not in the least afraid of ruins. We are going to inherit the earth; there is not the slightest doubt about that. The bourgeoisie might blast and ruin its own world before it leaves the stage of history. We carry a new world here, in our hearts. That world is growing in this minute.

„How many times did I see our mother cry because she couldn't give us the bread that we asked for!“

— Buenaventura Durruti
Context: From my earliest years, the first thing that I saw was suffering. And if I couldn't rebel when I was a child, it was only because I was an unaware being then. But the sorrows of my grandparents and parents were recorded in my memory during those years of unawareness. How many times did I see our mother cry because she couldn't give us the bread that we asked for! And yet our father worked without resting for a minute. Why couldn't we eat the bread that we needed if our father worked so hard? That was the first question whose answer I found in social injustice. And, since that same injustice exists today, thirty years later, I don't see why, now that I'm conscious of this, that I should stop fighting to abolish it. I don't want to remind you of the hardships suffered by our parents until we got older and could help out the family. But then we had to serve the so-called fatherland. The first was Santiago. I still remember mother weeping. But even more strongly etched in my memory are the words of our sick grandfather, who sat there, disabled and next to the heater, punching his legs in anger as he watched his grandson go off to Morocco, while the rich bought workers' sons to take their children's place … Don't you see why I'll continue fighting as long as these social injustices exist? Letter to his family (31 October 1931) http://www.skeptic.ca/Durruti.htm

Reklama

„The pickaxe and the shovel are as important at the rifle. I can't say it often enough.“

— Buenaventura Durruti
Context: You don't fight a war with words, but with fortifications. The pickaxe and the shovel are as important at the rifle. I can't say it often enough. Interview (3 October 1936), as quoted in Durruti in the Spanish Revolution (1996) by Abel Paz, as translated by Chuck W. Morse (2007), p. 537

„I believe, as I always have, in freedom. The freedom which rests on the sense of responsibility. I consider discipline indispensable, but it must be inner discipline, motivated by a common purpose and a strong feeling of comradeship.“

— Buenaventura Durruti
Context: I have been an Anarchist all my life. I hope I have remained one. I should consider it very sad indeed, had I to turn into a general and rule the men with a military rod. They have come to me voluntarily, they are ready to stake their lives in our antifascist fight. I believe, as I always have, in freedom. The freedom which rests on the sense of responsibility. I consider discipline indispensable, but it must be inner discipline, motivated by a common purpose and a strong feeling of comradeship. On his military leadership against fascist troops in Spain, as quoted in "Durruti Is Dead, Yet Living" (1936) http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/Goldman/Writings/Essays/durruti.html, by Emma Goldman

„The only church that illuminates is a burning church.“

— Buenaventura Durruti
As quoted in "Dialectical Clarity versus the Misty Conceit of Paradox" by Slavoj Žižek in The Monstrosity of Christ : Paradox or Dialectic? (2009) edited by Creston Davis, p. 287 This quote is originally from Peter Kropotkin, quoted by Durruti many times.

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