Witruwiusz cytaty

 Witruwiusz Fotografia
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Witruwiusz

Data urodzenia: 80 p. n. e.
Data zgonu: 15 p. n. e.

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Marcus Vitruvius Pollio – rzymski architekt żyjący w I w. p.n.e. Był konstruktorem machin wojennych za panowania Juliusza Cezara i Oktawiana Augusta. Twórca tzw. człowieka witruwiańskiego - wizerunku nagiego mężczyzny wpisanego w okrąg i kwadrat, symbolizujące ruch .

Witruwiusz zasłynął jako autor traktatu "O architekturze ksiąg dziesięć", który powstał pomiędzy rokiem 20 p.n.e. a 10 p.n.e., a został odnaleziony dopiero w 1415 roku w bibliotece klasztoru St. Gallen w Szwajcarii, przez humanistę florenckiego Poggia. Dzieło to jest dzisiaj bezcennym źródłem wiedzy o architekturze i sztuce budowlanej starożytnych Greków i Rzymian. Witruwiusz opisuje w nim szczegółowo zarówno greckie porządki klasyczne, jak i ich rzymskie odmiany. Opisy były uzupełnione odpowiednimi ilustracjami - oryginalne rysunki jednak się nie zachowały. Omówione zostały również szeroko zasady stosowane przez Rzymian przy planowaniu miast i wznoszeniu budowli. W okresie nowożytnym wielu sławnych autorów wykonywało ilustracje do tego dzieła, próbując odtworzyć zaginione rysunki.

Cytaty Witruwiusz

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„The stone in quarries is found to be of different and unlike qualities. In some it is soft... in others it is medium... in still others it is hard as in lava quarries. There are also numerous other kinds:“

—  Vitruvius
Context: The stone in quarries is found to be of different and unlike qualities. In some it is soft... in others it is medium... in still others it is hard as in lava quarries. There are also numerous other kinds: for instance, in Campania, red and black tufas; in Umbria, Picenum, and Venetia, white tufa which can be cut with a toothed saw like wood. Chapter VII, Sec. 1

„Further, at intervals they lay single stones which run through the entire thickness of the wall.“

—  Vitruvius
Context: Our workmen, in their hurry to finish, devote themselves only to the facings of the walls, setting them upright but filling the space between with a lot of broken stones and mortar thrown in anyhow. This makes three different sections in the same structure; two consisting of facing and one of filling between them. The Greeks, however, do not build so; but laying their stones level and building every other stone lengthwise into the thickness, they do not fill the space between, but construct the thickness of their walls in one solid and unbroken mass from the facings to the interior. Further, at intervals they lay single stones which run through the entire thickness of the wall. These stones... by their bonding powers... add very greatly to the solidity of the walls. Chapter VIII, Sec. 7

„There is no kind of material, no body, and no thing that can be produced or conceived of, which is not made up of elementary particles;“

—  Vitruvius
Context: There is no kind of material, no body, and no thing that can be produced or conceived of, which is not made up of elementary particles; and nature does not admit of a truthful exploration in accordance with the doctrines of the physicists without an accurate demonstration of the primary causes of things, showing how and why they are as they are. Chapter I, Sec. 9

„This is because there is a very small proportion of the elements of fire and air in its composition“

—  Vitruvius
Context: The larch... is not only preserved from decay and the worm by the great bitterness of its sap, but also it cannot be kindled with fire nor ignite of itself, unless like stone in a limekiln it is burned with other wood.... This is because there is a very small proportion of the elements of fire and air in its composition, which is a dense and solid mass of moisture and the earthy, so that it has no open pores through which fire can find its way... Further, its weight will not let it float in water. Chapter IX, Sec. 14

„But if the moisture is sucked out of the mortar by the porous rubble, and the lime and sand separate and disunite“

—  Vitruvius
Context: Both kinds should be constructed of the smallest stones, so that the walls, being thoroughly puddled with the mortar, which is made of lime and sand, may hold together longer. If the stones used are soft and porous, they are apt to suck the moisture out of the mortar and so to dry it up. But when there is abundance of lime and sand, the wall, containing more moisture, will not soon lose its strength, for they will hold it together. But if the moisture is sucked out of the mortar by the porous rubble, and the lime and sand separate and disunite, the rubble can no longer adhere to them and the wall will in time become a ruin. Chapter VIII, Sec. 2

„With the ripening of the fruits in Autumn“

—  Vitruvius
Context: With the ripening of the fruits in Autumn the leaves begin to wither and the trees, taking up their sap from the earth through the roots, recover themselves and are restored to their former solid texture. But the strong air of winter compresses and solidifies them. Chapter IX, Sec. 2

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„Oak... lasts for an unlimited period when buried in underground structures“

—  Vitruvius
Context: Oak... lasts for an unlimited period when buried in underground structures.... when exposed to moisture... it cannot take in liquid on account of its compactness, but, withdrawing from the moisture, it resists it and warps, thus making cracks. Chapter IX, Sec. 8

„Our workmen, in their hurry to finish, devote themselves only to the facings“

—  Vitruvius
Context: Our workmen, in their hurry to finish, devote themselves only to the facings of the walls, setting them upright but filling the space between with a lot of broken stones and mortar thrown in anyhow. This makes three different sections in the same structure; two consisting of facing and one of filling between them. The Greeks, however, do not build so; but laying their stones level and building every other stone lengthwise into the thickness, they do not fill the space between, but construct the thickness of their walls in one solid and unbroken mass from the facings to the interior. Further, at intervals they lay single stones which run through the entire thickness of the wall. These stones... by their bonding powers... add very greatly to the solidity of the walls. Chapter VIII, Sec. 7

„The properties of the soil are as different and unlike as are the various countries.“

—  Vitruvius
Context: There will still be the question why Tuscany, although it abounds in hot springs, does not furnish a powder out of which, on the same principle, a wall can be made which will set fast under water.... The properties of the soil are as different and unlike as are the various countries.... Hence it is not in all the places where boiling springs of hot water abound that there is the same combination of favourable circumstances... For things are produced in accordance with the will of nature; not to suit man's pleasure, but as it were by a chance distribution. Chapter VI, Sec. 5

„For the eye is always in search of beauty,“

—  Vitruvius
Context: For the eye is always in search of beauty, and if we do not gratify its desire for pleasure by a proportionate enlargement in these measures, and thus make compensation for ocular deception, a clumsy and awkward appearance will be presented to the beholder. Chapter III, Sec. 13

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„Bricks... should not be made of sandy or pebbly clay, or of fine gravel“

—  Vitruvius
Context: Bricks... should not be made of sandy or pebbly clay, or of fine gravel, because when made of these kinds they are in the first place heavy; and secondly when washed by the rain as they stand in walls, they go to pieces and break up, and the straw in them does not hold together on account of the roughness of the material. They should rather be made of white and chalky or of red clay, or even of a coarse grained gravelly clay. These materials are smooth and therefore durable; they are not heavy to work with, and are readily laid. Chapter III "Brick" Sec. 1

„Where there is no pitsand, we must use the kinds washed up by rivers or by the sea“

—  Vitruvius
Context: Economy denotes the the proper management of materials and of site, as well as a thrifty balancing of cost and common sense in the construction of works.... the architect does not demand things which cannot be found or made ready without great expense. For example: it is not everywhere that there is plenty of pitsand, rubble, fir, clear fir, and marble... Where there is no pitsand, we must use the kinds washed up by rivers or by the sea... and other problems we must solve in similar ways. Chapter II, Sec. 8

„Nobody draws the light for covered wine rooms from the south or west, but rather from the north“

—  Vitruvius
Context: Nobody draws the light for covered wine rooms from the south or west, but rather from the north, since that quarter is never subject to change but is always constant and unshifting. So it is with granaries: grain exposed to the sun's course soon loses its good quality, and provisions and fruit, unless stored in a place unexposed to the sun's course, do not keep long. Chapter IV, Sec. 2

„In the thickness there should be set a very close succession of ties made of charred olive wood, binding the two faces of the wall together like pins, to give it lasting endurance.“

—  Vitruvius
Context: The thickness of the wall should, in my opinion, be such that armed men meeting on top of it may pass one another without interference. In the thickness there should be set a very close succession of ties made of charred olive wood, binding the two faces of the wall together like pins, to give it lasting endurance. For that is a material which neither decay, nor the weather, nor time can harm, but even though buried in the earth or set in the water it keeps sound and useful forever. And so not only city walls but substructures in general and all walls that require a thickness like that of a city wall, will be long in falling to decay if tied in this manner. Chapter V, Sec. 3

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