Plotyn cytaty

 Plotyn Fotografia
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Plotyn

Data urodzenia: 203
Data zgonu: 270

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Plotyn – filozof starożytny, twórca systemu filozoficznego zwanego neoplatonizmem. Młodość spędził w Aleksandrii. Tam w 28 roku życia rozpoczął studia filozoficzne pod okiem Ammoniosa Sakkasa. 12 lat później, ok. 244 roku, przeniósł się do Rzymu, gdzie założył własną szkołę.

Neoplatonizm Plotyna był oparty na nauce Platona, połączonej z elementami stoicyzmu, neopitagoreizmu, a także filozofów aleksandryjskich: Filona i Ammoniosa. Plotyn zaczął pisać późno, dopiero od 50 roku życia. Ponieważ pisał niesystematycznie, całkowicie nie dbając o językowy kształt i tytuły, nie zebrał w jednym dziele podstawowych swych poglądów. Zostały one wyłożone w Enneadach , na które składają się rozprawy zebrane przez ucznia i biografa Plotyna - Porfiriusza z Tyru. Pierwsza Enneada obejmuje rozprawy etyczne, druga fizykalne, trzecia kosmologiczne, czwarta rozprawy o duszy, piąta o rozumie, szósta o najwyższych kategoriach, bycie, dobru, jedności.

Zasadą bytu, tym co istnieje naprawdę jest Jednia – doskonała i prosta substancja, która jest niepoznawalna, gdyż każda próba jej poznania prowadziłaby do wyszczególnienia jej własności i powstania rozróżnienia: Jednia – własności, co przeczyłoby jej prostocie. Jednia kontempluje samą siebie i emanuje z siebie hierarchicznie kolejne szczeble bytu – hipostazy. Z Jedni wyłania się pierwsza hipostaza - Umysł , który w akcie samopoznania zwraca się ku sobie, ujmuje i odróżnia siebie jako to, co poznaje i jako to, co jest poznawane . Ów umysł podwojony to druga hipostaza - to jego myśli są wzorcami i przyczynami poszczególnych rzeczy, które wypełniają świat. Dusza pierwsza powstaje, gdy umysł zapatrzony w Jednię tworzy jej ogląd. Dusza pragnie tworzyć, jednak jej moc jest zbyt mała - dlatego też wszystko, co się z niej wyłania nie jest już samodzielnym bytem - hipostazą. Dusza stanowi najniższy, ostatni poziom w emanacyjnym ciągu bytów. Teoria emanacji była podstawową myślą systemu Plotyna. Świat był dla niego kolejnym emanowaniem coraz to nowych istnień. Założył, że kolejne byty są mniej doskonałe. Byty doskonałe mają większą moc twórczą. Twór jest zawsze mniej doskonały od twórcy. Zauważa więc porządek zmniejszających się doskonałości. Szereg ten zaczyna się od bytu najdoskonalszego - Absolutu, Jedni - i trwa, dopóki nie wyczerpie się zmniejszająca się stopniowo doskonałość i moc twórcza. Tę drabinę zstępujących po kolei bytów nazwał greckim słowem efesis.

Powracając do tworów duszy - świat zmysłowy składa się z dwóch czynników o nierównej wartości: duszy i ciała. Dusza udziela ciału istnienia i życia, ciało zaś dzięki duszy uczestniczy w istnieniu i życiu. Dusza tworzy rzeczy wedle doskonałych wzorców - idei umysłu. Idee te uobecniają się w rzeczach materialnych, a rzeczy te uczestniczą z kolei w ideach, upodobniając się do nich. Ale są zawsze odbiciami: niedoskonałymi i niepełnymi. Rzeczy bowiem powstają, różnicują się, zmieniają; nie tyle są, co nieustannie stają się, a następnie giną. W rzeczywistości egzystują, nie popadając w niebyt o tyle tylko, o ile partycypują w ideach i do nich się odnoszą.

Materia stanowi ostatni, najniższy szczebel efesis. Jej istnienie jest niemal równoznaczne z nieistnieniem. Materię możemy określać jedynie negatywnie, jako coś, co jest niedostatkiem, niepełnością, brakiem istnienia, a więc - nicością. A ponieważ istnienie jest dobrem, to jego przeciwieństwo - niebyt - jest złem. W ten sposób Plotyn jako pierwszy z filozofów sformułował prywacyjną teorię zła: zło nie istnieje realnie, ontologicznie, lecz jest jedynie czymś negatywnym - niedostatkiem istnienia, jego ograniczeniem i niepełnością, czyli brakiem dobra. Twierdzenie to stało się podstawą teodycei, a zwłaszcza tej wersji, którą opracował święty Augustyn z Hippony.

Tzw. prywacyjną teorię zła już poprzednio sformułował Arystoteles; natomiast u Plotyna materia jest zła realnie i należy się z niej wyzwolić.

Cytaty Plotyn

„What, then, must be the condition of that being, who beholds the beautiful itself?“

—  Plotinus
Context: Perhaps, the good and the beautiful are the same, and must be investigated by one and the same process; and in like manner the base and the evil. And in the first rank we must place the beautiful, and consider it as the same with the good; from which immediately emanates intellect as beautiful. Next to this, we must consider the soul receiving its beauty from intellect, and every inferior beauty deriving its origin from the forming power of the soul, whether conversant in fair actions and offices, or sciences and arts. Lastly, bodies themselves participate of beauty from the soul, which, as something divine, and a portion of the beautiful itself, renders whatever it supervenes and subdues, beautiful as far as its natural capacity will admit. Let us, therefore, re-ascend to the good itself, which every soul desires; and in which it can alone find perfect repose. For if anyone shall become acquainted with this source of beauty he will then know what I say, and after what manner he is beautiful. Indeed, whatever is desirable is a kind of good, since to this desire tends. But they alone pursue true good, who rise to intelligible beauty, and so far only tend to good itself; as far as they lay aside the deformed vestments of matter, with which they become connected in their descent. Just as those who penetrate into the holy retreats of sacred mysteries, are first purified and then divest themselves of their garments, until someone by such a process, having dismissed everything foreign from the God, by himself alone, beholds the solitary principle of the universe, sincere, simple and pure, from which all things depend, and to whose transcendent perfections the eyes of all intelligent natures are directed, as the proper cause of being, life and intelligence. With what ardent love, with what strong desire will he who enjoys this transporting vision be inflamed while vehemently affecting to become one with this supreme beauty! For this it is ordained, that he who does not yet perceive him, yet desires him as good, but he who enjoys the vision is enraptured with his beauty, and is equally filled with admiration and delight. Hence, such a one is agitated with a salutary astonishment; is affected with the highest and truest love; derides vehement affections and inferior loves, and despises the beauty which he once approved. Such, too, is the condition of those who, on perceiving the forms of gods or daemons, no longer esteem the fairest of corporeal forms. What, then, must be the condition of that being, who beholds the beautiful itself?

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„It is by participation of species that we call every sensible object beautiful.“

—  Plotinus
Context: It is by participation of species that we call every sensible object beautiful. Thus, since everything void of form is by nature fitted for its reception, as far as it is destitute of reason and form it is base and separate from the divine reason, the great fountain of forms; and whatever is entirely remote from this immortal source is perfectly base and deformed. And such is matter, which by its nature is ever averse from the supervening irradiations of form. Whenever, therefore, form accedes, it conciliates in amicable unity the parts which are about to compose a whole; for being itself one it is not wonderful that the subject of its power should tend to unity, as far as the nature of a compound will admit. Hence beauty is established in multitude when the many is reduced into one, and in this case it communicates itself both to the parts and to the whole. But when a particular one, composed from similar parts, is received it gives itself to the whole, without departing from the sameness and integrity of its nature. Thus at one and the same time it communicates itself to the whole building and its several parts; and at another time confines itself to a single stone, and then the first participation arises from the operations of art, but the second from the formation of nature. And hence body becomes beautiful through the communion supernally proceeding from divinity.

„It is now time, leaving every object of sense far behind, to contemplate, by a certain ascent, a beauty of a much higher order; a beauty not visible to the corporeal eye, but alone manifest to the brighter eye of the soul, independent of all corporeal aid.“

—  Plotinus
Context: It is now time, leaving every object of sense far behind, to contemplate, by a certain ascent, a beauty of a much higher order; a beauty not visible to the corporeal eye, but alone manifest to the brighter eye of the soul, independent of all corporeal aid. However, since, without some previous perception of beauty it is impossible to express by words the beauties of sense, but we must remain in the state of the blind, so neither can we ever speak of the beauty of offices and sciences, and whatever is allied to these, if deprived of their intimate possession. Thus we shall never be able to tell of virtue's brightness, unless by looking inward we perceive the fair countenance of justice and temperance, and are convinced that neither the evening nor morning star are half so beautiful and bright. But it is requisite to perceive objects of this kind by that eye by which the soul beholds such real beauties. Besides it is necessary that whoever perceives this species of beauty, should be seized with much greater delight, and more vehement admiration, than any corporeal beauty can excite; as now embracing beauty real and substantial. Such affections, I say, ought to be excited about true beauty, as admiration and sweet astonishment; desire also and love and a pleasant trepidation. For all souls, as I may say, are affected in this manner about invisible objects, but those the most who have the strongest propensity to their love; as it likewise happens about corporeal beauty; for all equally perceive beautiful corporeal forms, yet all are not equally excited, but lovers in the greatest degree.

„What measures, then, shall we adopt? What machine employ, or what reason consult by means of which we may contemplate this ineffable beauty; a beauty abiding in the most divine sanctuary without ever proceeding from its sacred retreats lest it should be beheld by the profane and vulgar eye? We must enter deep into ourselves, and, leaving behind the objects of corporeal sight, no longer look back after any of the accustomed spectacles of sense.“

—  Plotinus
Context: What measures, then, shall we adopt? What machine employ, or what reason consult by means of which we may contemplate this ineffable beauty; a beauty abiding in the most divine sanctuary without ever proceeding from its sacred retreats lest it should be beheld by the profane and vulgar eye? We must enter deep into ourselves, and, leaving behind the objects of corporeal sight, no longer look back after any of the accustomed spectacles of sense. For, it is necessary that whoever beholds this beauty, should withdraw his view from the fairest corporeal forms; and, convinced that these are nothing more than images, vestiges and shadows of beauty, should eagerly soar to the fair original from which they are derived. For he who rushes to these lower beauties, as if grasping realities, when they are only like beautiful images appearing in water, will, doubtless, like him in the fable, by stretching after the shadow, sink into the lake and disappear. For, by thus embracing and adhering to corporeal forms, he is precipitated, not so much in his body as in his soul, into profound and horrid darkness; and thus blind, like those in the infernal regions, converses only with phantoms, deprived of the perception of what is real and true.

„The sensitive eye can never be able to survey, the orb of the sun, unless strongly endued with solar fire, and participating largely of the vivid ray. Everyone therefore must become divine, and of godlike beauty, before he can gaze upon a god and the beautiful itself.“

—  Plotinus
Context: The sensitive eye can never be able to survey, the orb of the sun, unless strongly endued with solar fire, and participating largely of the vivid ray. Everyone therefore must become divine, and of godlike beauty, before he can gaze upon a god and the beautiful itself. Thus proceeding in the right way of beauty he will first ascend into the region of intellect, contemplating every fair species, the beauty of which he will perceive to be no other than ideas themselves; for all things are beautiful by the supervening irradiations of these, because they are the offspring and essence of intellect. But that which is superior to these is no other than the fountain of good, everywhere widely diffusing around the streams of beauty, and hence in discourse called the beautiful itself because beauty is its immediate offspring. But if you accurately distinguish the intelligible objects you will call the beautiful the receptacle of ideas; but the good itself, which is superior, the fountain and principle of the beautiful; or, you may place the first beautiful and the good in the same principle, independent of the beauty which there subsists.

„Let us, therefore, re-ascend to the good itself, which every soul desires; and in which it can alone find perfect repose.“

—  Plotinus
Context: Perhaps, the good and the beautiful are the same, and must be investigated by one and the same process; and in like manner the base and the evil. And in the first rank we must place the beautiful, and consider it as the same with the good; from which immediately emanates intellect as beautiful. Next to this, we must consider the soul receiving its beauty from intellect, and every inferior beauty deriving its origin from the forming power of the soul, whether conversant in fair actions and offices, or sciences and arts. Lastly, bodies themselves participate of beauty from the soul, which, as something divine, and a portion of the beautiful itself, renders whatever it supervenes and subdues, beautiful as far as its natural capacity will admit. Let us, therefore, re-ascend to the good itself, which every soul desires; and in which it can alone find perfect repose. For if anyone shall become acquainted with this source of beauty he will then know what I say, and after what manner he is beautiful. Indeed, whatever is desirable is a kind of good, since to this desire tends. But they alone pursue true good, who rise to intelligible beauty, and so far only tend to good itself; as far as they lay aside the deformed vestments of matter, with which they become connected in their descent. Just as those who penetrate into the holy retreats of sacred mysteries, are first purified and then divest themselves of their garments, until someone by such a process, having dismissed everything foreign from the God, by himself alone, beholds the solitary principle of the universe, sincere, simple and pure, from which all things depend, and to whose transcendent perfections the eyes of all intelligent natures are directed, as the proper cause of being, life and intelligence. With what ardent love, with what strong desire will he who enjoys this transporting vision be inflamed while vehemently affecting to become one with this supreme beauty! For this it is ordained, that he who does not yet perceive him, yet desires him as good, but he who enjoys the vision is enraptured with his beauty, and is equally filled with admiration and delight. Hence, such a one is agitated with a salutary astonishment; is affected with the highest and truest love; derides vehement affections and inferior loves, and despises the beauty which he once approved. Such, too, is the condition of those who, on perceiving the forms of gods or daemons, no longer esteem the fairest of corporeal forms. What, then, must be the condition of that being, who beholds the beautiful itself?

„Pleasure and distress, fear and courage, desire and aversion, where have these affections and experiences their seat?“

—  Plotinus
Context: Pleasure and distress, fear and courage, desire and aversion, where have these affections and experiences their seat? Clearly, either in the Soul alone, or in the Soul as employing the body, or in some third entity deriving from both. And for this third entity, again, there are two possible modes: it might be either a blend or a distinct form due to the blending. First Tractate : The Animate and the Man, §1

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„Perhaps, the good and the beautiful are the same, and must be investigated by one and the same process; and in like manner the base and the evil.“

—  Plotinus
Context: Perhaps, the good and the beautiful are the same, and must be investigated by one and the same process; and in like manner the base and the evil. And in the first rank we must place the beautiful, and consider it as the same with the good; from which immediately emanates intellect as beautiful. Next to this, we must consider the soul receiving its beauty from intellect, and every inferior beauty deriving its origin from the forming power of the soul, whether conversant in fair actions and offices, or sciences and arts. Lastly, bodies themselves participate of beauty from the soul, which, as something divine, and a portion of the beautiful itself, renders whatever it supervenes and subdues, beautiful as far as its natural capacity will admit. Let us, therefore, re-ascend to the good itself, which every soul desires; and in which it can alone find perfect repose. For if anyone shall become acquainted with this source of beauty he will then know what I say, and after what manner he is beautiful. Indeed, whatever is desirable is a kind of good, since to this desire tends. But they alone pursue true good, who rise to intelligible beauty, and so far only tend to good itself; as far as they lay aside the deformed vestments of matter, with which they become connected in their descent. Just as those who penetrate into the holy retreats of sacred mysteries, are first purified and then divest themselves of their garments, until someone by such a process, having dismissed everything foreign from the God, by himself alone, beholds the solitary principle of the universe, sincere, simple and pure, from which all things depend, and to whose transcendent perfections the eyes of all intelligent natures are directed, as the proper cause of being, life and intelligence. With what ardent love, with what strong desire will he who enjoys this transporting vision be inflamed while vehemently affecting to become one with this supreme beauty! For this it is ordained, that he who does not yet perceive him, yet desires him as good, but he who enjoys the vision is enraptured with his beauty, and is equally filled with admiration and delight. Hence, such a one is agitated with a salutary astonishment; is affected with the highest and truest love; derides vehement affections and inferior loves, and despises the beauty which he once approved. Such, too, is the condition of those who, on perceiving the forms of gods or daemons, no longer esteem the fairest of corporeal forms. What, then, must be the condition of that being, who beholds the beautiful itself?

„[W]hen they write incantations, and utter them as to the stars, not only to [the bodies and] souls of these, but also to things superior to soul, what do they effect? They answer, charms, allurements, and persuasions, so that the stars hear the words addressed to them, and are drawn down; if any one of us knows how in a more artificial manner to utter these incantations, sounds, aspirations of the voice, and hissings, and such other particulars as in their writings are said to possess a magical power.... They likewise pretend that they can expel disease. And if, indeed, they say that they effect this by temperance and an orderly mode of life, they speak rightly, and conformably to philosophers. But now when they assert that diseases are daemons, and that they are able to expel these by words, and proclaim that they possess this ability, they may appear to the multitude to be more venerable, who admire the powers of magicians; but they will not persuade intelligent men that diseases have not their causes either from labours, or satiety, or indigence, or putrefaction, and in short from mutations which either have an external or internal origin. This, however, is manifest from the cure of diseases. For disease is deduced downward, so as to pass away externally, either through a flux of the belly, or the operation of medicine. Disease, also, is cured by letting of blood and fasting.... The disease... [is] something different from the daemon.... The manner, however, in which these things are asserted by the Gnostics, and on what account is evident; since for the sake of this, no less than of other things, we have mentioned these daemons.... And this must every where be considered, that he who pursues our form of philosophy, will, besides all other goods, genuinely exhibit simple and venerable manners, in conjunction with the possession of wisdom, and will not endeavour to become insolent and proud; but will possess confidence accompanied with reason, much security and caution, and great circumspection.“

—  Plotinus

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Dzisiejsze rocznice
Maria Walewska Fotografia
Maria Walewska3
kochanka Napoleona 1786 - 1817
Stanisław Maczek Fotografia
Stanisław Maczek4
generał polski 1892 - 1994
Następnych dzisiejszych rocznic