Andriej Sacharow cytaty

Andriej Sacharow Fotografia
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Andriej Sacharow

Data urodzenia: 21. Maj 1921
Data zgonu: 14. Grudzień 1989
Natępne imiona:Andrej Dmitrievič Sacharov,Andrei Dmitrievich Sacharov

Reklama

Andriej Dmitrijewicz Sacharow – radziecki fizyk jądrowy, twórca m.in. teorii indukowanej grawitacji, działacz polityczny, laureat Pokojowej Nagrody Nobla. Członek Rosyjskiej Akademii Nauk.

Rozpoczął studia w 1938 roku na Pedagogicznym Uniwersytecie Moskiewskim. Ukończył je w Aszchabadzie, ponieważ uczelnia moskiewska musiała zostać ewakuowana w trakcie inwazji niemieckiej. Następnie zaczął pracę laboratoryjną w Uljanowsku. Powrócił do Moskwy w 1945 roku, gdzie w 1947 roku uzyskał doktorat. Zajmował się m.in. promieniowaniem kosmicznym. W połowie 1948 roku trafił do zespołu Igora Kurczatowa, gdzie zaczął pracę w radzieckim programie jądrowym. Po śmierci Kurczatowa został szefem programu stając się współtwórcą radzieckiej bomby wodorowej. Widząc skutki dokonywanych prób odmówił dalszych badań stając się dysydentem. W 1964 roku podczas wyborów do Akademii Nauk zabrał głos atakując m.in. hołubionego przez władzę Trofima Łysenkę. Od tego czasu coraz częściej zabierał głos w sprawach społecznych i politycznych. W roku 1968 napisał długi esej Rozmyślania o postępie, pokojowym współistnieniu i wolności intelektualnej. Wydano go w nakładzie 18 mln egzemplarzy, najpierw jako samizdat, a następnie za granicą. To spowodowało ostrą reakcję władz. Został wyrzucony z pracy w ośrodku badań jądrowych i pozbawiony wszelkich tytułów. Mimo to cały czas aktywnie działał na rzecz rozbrojenia, ograniczenia potencjałów nuklearnych, demokracji i poszanowania praw człowieka. Krytykował ustrój sowiecki, określając go jako totalitarny i jego poczynania – m.in. Interwencję ZSRR w Afganistanie, określając ją jako agresję. Otrzymaną w 1975 roku Nagrodę Nobla przeznaczył na cele charytatywne.

24 sierpnia 1974 powiedział[potrzebny przypis]:

Został odznaczony m.in. trzykrotnie Medalem „Sierp i Młot” Bohatera Pracy Socjalistycznej oraz Orderem Lenina. Był laureatem Nagrody Stalinowskiej i Nagrody Leninowskiej .

Był żonaty z Jeleną Bonner.

Cytaty Andriej Sacharow

Reklama

„The division of mankind threatens it with destruction.“

— Andrei Sakharov
Context: The division of mankind threatens it with destruction. Civilization is imperiled by: a universal thermonuclear war, catastrophic hunger for most of mankind, stupefaction from the narcotic of "mass culture," and bureaucratized dogmatism, a spreading of mass myths that put entire peoples and continents under the power of cruel and treacherous demagogues, and destruction or degeneration from the unforeseeable consequences of swift changes in the conditions of life on our planet. In the face of these perils, any action increasing the division of mankind, any preaching of the incompatibility of world ideologies and nations is madness and a crime. Only universal cooperation under conditions of intellec­tual freedom and the lofty moral ideals of socialism and labor, accompanied by the elimination of dogmatism and pressures of the concealed interests of ruling classes, will preserve civilization. The reader will understand that ideological collaboration cannot apply to those fanatical, sectarian, and extremist ideologies that reject all possibility of rapprochement, discussion, and compromise, for example, the ideologies of fascist, racist, militaristic, and Maoist demagogy.

„The strategy of peaceful coexistence and collaboration must be deepened in every way.“

— Andrei Sakharov
Context: The strategy of peaceful coexistence and collaboration must be deepened in every way. Scientific methods and principles of international policy will have to be worked out, based on scientific prediction of the immediate and more distant consequences. The initiative must be seized in working out a broad program of struggle against hunger. A law on press and information must be drafted, widely discussed, and adopted, with the aim not only of ending irresponsible and irrational censorship, but also of encouraging self-study in our society, fearless discussion, and the search for truth. The law must provide for the material resources of freedom of thought. All anti-constitutional laws and decrees violating human rights must be abrogated.

„The capitalist world could not help giving birth to the socialist, but now the socialist world should not seek to destroy by force the ground from which it grew. Under the present conditions this would be tantamount to the suicide of mankind. Socialism should ennoble that ground by its example and other indirect forms of pressure and then merge with it.“

— Andrei Sakharov
Context: Without socialism, bourgeois practices and the egotistical principle of private ownership gave rise to the "people of the abyss" described by Jack London and earlier by Engels. Only the competition with socialism and the pressure of the working class made possible the social progress of the twentieth century and, all the more, will insure the now inevitable process of rapprochement of the two systems. It took socialism to raise the meaning of labor to the heights of a moral feat. Before the advent of socialism, national egotism gave rise to colonial oppression, nationalism, and racism. By now it has become clear that victory is on the side of the humanistic, international approach. The capitalist world could not help giving birth to the socialist, but now the socialist world should not seek to destroy by force the ground from which it grew. Under the present conditions this would be tantamount to the suicide of mankind. Socialism should ennoble that ground by its example and other indirect forms of pressure and then merge with it.

„All peoples have the right to decide their own fate with a free expression of will.“

— Andrei Sakharov
Context: All peoples have the right to decide their own fate with a free expression of will. This right is guaranteed by international control over observance by all governments of the "Declaration of the Rights of Man." International control presupposes the use of economic sanctions as well as the use of military forces of the United Nations in defense of "the rights of man."

„Only universal cooperation under conditions of intellec­tual freedom and the lofty moral ideals of socialism and labor, accompanied by the elimination of dogmatism and pressures of the concealed interests of ruling classes, will preserve civilization.“

— Andrei Sakharov
Context: The division of mankind threatens it with destruction. Civilization is imperiled by: a universal thermonuclear war, catastrophic hunger for most of mankind, stupefaction from the narcotic of "mass culture," and bureaucratized dogmatism, a spreading of mass myths that put entire peoples and continents under the power of cruel and treacherous demagogues, and destruction or degeneration from the unforeseeable consequences of swift changes in the conditions of life on our planet. In the face of these perils, any action increasing the division of mankind, any preaching of the incompatibility of world ideologies and nations is madness and a crime. Only universal cooperation under conditions of intellec­tual freedom and the lofty moral ideals of socialism and labor, accompanied by the elimination of dogmatism and pressures of the concealed interests of ruling classes, will preserve civilization. The reader will understand that ideological collaboration cannot apply to those fanatical, sectarian, and extremist ideologies that reject all possibility of rapprochement, discussion, and compromise, for example, the ideologies of fascist, racist, militaristic, and Maoist demagogy.

Reklama

„We regard as "scientific" a method based on deep analysis of facts, theories, and views, presupposing unprejudiced, unfearing open discussion and conclusions.“

— Andrei Sakharov
Context: We regard as "scientific" a method based on deep analysis of facts, theories, and views, presupposing unprejudiced, unfearing open discussion and conclusions. The complexity and diversity of all the phenomena of modern life, the great possibilities and dangers linked with the scientific-technical revolution and with a number of social tendencies demand precisely such an approach, as has been acknowledged in a number of official statements.

„Freedom of thought is the only guarantee of the feasibility of a scientific democratic approach to politics, economy, and culture.“

— Andrei Sakharov
Context: Intellectual freedom is essential to human society — freedom to obtain and distribute information, freedom for open-minded and unfearing debate, and freedom from pressure by officialdom and prejudices. Such a trinity of freedom of thought is the only guarantee against an infection of people by mass myths, which, in the hands of treacherous hypocrites and demagogues, can be transformed into bloody dictatorship. Freedom of thought is the only guarantee of the feasibility of a scientific democratic approach to politics, economy, and culture. But freedom of thought is under a triple threat in modern society—from the deliberate opium of mass culture, from cowardly, egotistic, and philistine ideologies, and from the ossified dogmatism of a bureaucratic oligarchy and its favorite weapon, ideological censorship. Therefore, freedom of thought requires the defense of all thinking and honest people.

„Both Marx and Lenin always stressed the viciousness of a bureaucratic system as the opposite of a democratic system.“

— Andrei Sakharov
Context: Marx once wrote that the illusion that the "bosses know everything best" and "only the higher circles familiar with the official nature of things can pass judgment" was held by officials who equate the public weal with governmental authority. Both Marx and Lenin always stressed the viciousness of a bureaucratic system as the opposite of a democratic system. Lenin used to say that every cook should learn how to govern.

„The anti-people's regime of Stalin remained equally cruel and at the same time dogmatically narrow and blind in its cruelty.“

— Andrei Sakharov
Context: The anti-people's regime of Stalin remained equally cruel and at the same time dogmatically narrow and blind in its cruelty. The killing of military and engineering officials before the war, the blind faith in the "reasonableness" of the colleague in crime, Hitler, and the other reasons for the national tragedy of 1941 have been well described … Stalinist dogmatism and isolation from real life was demonstrated particularly in the countryside, in the policy of unlimited exploitation and the predatory forced deliver­ies at "symbolic" prices, in almost serflike enslavement of the peasantry, the depriving of peasants of the simplest means of mechanization, and the appointment of collective-farm chairmen on the basis of their cunning and obsequiousness. The results are evident — a profound and hard-to-correct destruction of the economy and way of life in the countryside, which, by the law of interconnected vessels, damaged industry as well.

Reklama

„We are often told lately not to "rub salt into wounds." This is usually being said by people who suffered no wounds.“

— Andrei Sakharov
Context: From 1936 to 1939 more than 1.2 million Party members, half of the total membership, were arrested. Only fifty thousand regained freedom; the others were tortured during interrogation or were shot (six hundred thousand) or died in camps. Only in isolated cases were the rehabilitated allowed to assume responsible posts; even fewer were permitted to take part in the investigation of crimes of which they had been witnesses or victims. We are often told lately not to "rub salt into wounds." This is usually being said by people who suffered no wounds. Actually only the most meticulous analysis of the past and of its consequences will now enable us to wash off the blood and dirt that befouled our banner.

„In the old China, the systems of examinations for official positions led to mental stagnation and to the canonizing of the reactionary aspects of Confucianism. It is highly undesirable to have anything like that in a modern society.“

— Andrei Sakharov
Context: A system of education under government control, separation of school and church, universal free education — all these are great achievements of social progress. But everything has a reverse side. In this case it is excessive standardization, extending to the teaching process itself, to the curriculum, especially in literature, history, civics, geography, and to the system of examinations. One cannot but see a danger in excessive reference to authority and in the limitation of discussion and intellectual boldness at an age when personal convictions are beginning to be formed. In the old China, the systems of examinations for official positions led to mental stagnation and to the canonizing of the reactionary aspects of Confucianism. It is highly undesirable to have anything like that in a modern society.

„Intellectual freedom is essential to human society — freedom to obtain and distribute information, freedom for open-minded and unfearing debate, and freedom from pressure by officialdom and prejudices.“

— Andrei Sakharov
Context: Intellectual freedom is essential to human society — freedom to obtain and distribute information, freedom for open-minded and unfearing debate, and freedom from pressure by officialdom and prejudices. Such a trinity of freedom of thought is the only guarantee against an infection of people by mass myths, which, in the hands of treacherous hypocrites and demagogues, can be transformed into bloody dictatorship. Freedom of thought is the only guarantee of the feasibility of a scientific democratic approach to politics, economy, and culture. But freedom of thought is under a triple threat in modern society—from the deliberate opium of mass culture, from cowardly, egotistic, and philistine ideologies, and from the ossified dogmatism of a bureaucratic oligarchy and its favorite weapon, ideological censorship. Therefore, freedom of thought requires the defense of all thinking and honest people.

„The worldwide dangers of war, famine, cults of personality, and bureaucracy — these are perils for all of mankind.“

— Andrei Sakharov
Context: The worldwide dangers of war, famine, cults of personality, and bureaucracy — these are perils for all of mankind. Recognition by the working class and the intelligentsia of their common interests has been a striking phenomenon of the present day. The most progressive, internationalist, and dedicated element of the intelligentsia is, in essence, part of the working class, and the most advanced, educated, internationalist, and broad-minded part of the working class is part of the intelligentsia.

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