Abraham Joshua Heschel cytaty

Abraham Joshua Heschel Fotografia
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Abraham Joshua Heschel

Data urodzenia: 11. Styczeń 1907
Data zgonu: 23. Grudzień 1972

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Abraham Joszua Heschel – teolog i filozof żydowski.

Oboje jego rodzice, tak ojciec Mordechaj , jak i matka Rajzel z domu Perlow wywodzili się z opatowskich rodzin chasydzkich. Abraham Joszua był ich najmłodszym, szóstym dzieckiem. Uzyskał tradycyjne żydowskie wykształcenie w jesziwie zakończone smichą, czyli rabiniczną ordynacją. Następnie studiował na Uniwersytecie w Berlinie, broniąc na tej uczelni pracę doktorską, która została wydana po niemiecku przez Polską Akademię Umiejętności w 1936 roku pt. „Die Prophetie. O istocie proroctwa”. Równolegle zgłębiał wiedzę rabiniczną w Wyższej Szkole Nauk Judaistycznych, którą zakończył ponowną ordynacją rabiniczną. Jego nauczycielami byli Chanoch Albeck, Ismar Elbogen, Julius Guttmann i Leo Beck. W 1937 roku Martin Buber powołał go na swego następcę w Domu Nauki Żydowskiej we Frankfurcie nad Menem. Jego pobyt w Niemczech nie trwał długo. Z powodu nazistowskich represji w 1938 roku został stąd wydalony. Pierwszym miejscem zatrzymania była Warszawa, gdzie kilka miesięcy wykładał w Instytucie Nauk Judaistycznych. Następnie w lecie 1939 roku wyjechał do Wielkiej Brytanii, a stamtąd w 1940 roku do USA. Heschel 10 grudnia 1946 roku poślubił pianistkę Sylvię Straus. Z ich związku urodziła się córka Susannah Heschel . W USA pracę wykładowcy podjął najpierw w Hebrew Union College w Cincinnati, w którym nauczano zgodnie z zasadami przyjętymi przez reformowany kierunek judaizmu. Krytyczny stosunek Heschela do tych zasad skłonił go do przejścia w 1946 roku do Jewish Theological Seminary of America w Nowym Jorku, które reprezentowało kierunek konserwatywny , choć i z nim do końca się nie identyfikował. W uczelni tej piastował funkcję profesora etyki i mistyki żydowskiej aż do śmierci. Pisał po niemiecku, hebrajsku, w jidysz i po angielsku.

Obok prac dotyczących średniowiecznej filozofii żydowskiej, kabały i chasydyzmu, tworzył także poezję. Do najważniejszych jego dzieł należą: Man is Not Alone , God in Search of Man , The Sabbath i The Prophets . Heschel angażował się jednocześnie w wiele spraw publicznych: wspierał zaprzyjaźnionego z nim Martina Luthera Kinga w walce o równouprawnienie Murzynów, wywarł poważny wpływ na zmianę stosunku Kościoła katolickiego do judaizmu, co wyraz znalazło w deklaracji Nostra aetate przyjętej na II Soborze Watykańskim, występował zdecydowanie o respektowanie praw obywatelskich w USA oraz na rzecz wolności dla Żydów w Związku Radzieckim. W 2009 roku został wydany tomik jego młodzieńczych wierszy Niewypowiedziane imię Boga: Człowiek. W oryginale zapisane w języku jidysz, przetłumaczone na język polski, przez krakowskiego orientalistę, judaistę i tłumacza Przemysława Piekarskiego.

Konkurs historyczny im. Prof. Abrahama Heschela: Abraham Heschel został obrany patronem konkursu organizowanego od 2009 r. na terenie województwa warmińsko-mazurskiego.

Cytaty Abraham Joshua Heschel

„In the realm of faith, God is not a hypothesis derived from logical assumptions, but an immediate insight, self-evident as light.“

— Abraham Joshua Heschel
Context: In the realm of faith, God is not a hypothesis derived from logical assumptions, but an immediate insight, self-evident as light. To rationalists He is something after which they seek in the darkness with the light of their reason. To men of faith He is the light. "The Holy Dimension", p. 337. Heschel made similar statements in earlier writings: The great insight is not attained when we ponder or infer the beyond from the here. In the realm of the ineffable, God is not a hypothesis derived from logical assumptions, but an immediate insight, self-evident as light. He is not something to be sought in the darkness with the light of reason. He is the light. Man Is Not Alone : A Philosophy of Religion (1951)

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„It is a distortion to regard reason and faith as alternatives. Reason is a necessary coefficient of faith. Faith without explication by reason is mute, reason without faith is deaf.“

— Abraham Joshua Heschel
Context: There is neither advance nor service without faith. Nobody can rationally explain why he should sacrifice his life and his happiness for the sake of the good. The conviction that I must obey the ethical imperatives is not derived from logical argument but originates from an intuitive certitude, in a certitude of faith. There is no conspiracy against reason, no random obstinacy, no sluggish inertia of mind or smug self-assurance entrenched behind the walls of believing. Faith does not detach a man from thinking, it does not suspend reason. It is opposed not to knowledge but to backwardness and dullness, to indifferent aloofness to the essence of living. … It is a distortion to regard reason and faith as alternatives. Reason is a necessary coefficient of faith. Faith without explication by reason is mute, reason without faith is deaf. There can be a true symbiosis of reason and faith. "The Holy Dimension", p. 338

„Faith opens our hearts for the entrance of the holy.“

— Abraham Joshua Heschel
Context: Faith opens our hearts for the entrance of the holy. It is almost as though God were thinking for us. "The Holy Dimension", p. 339

„Faith is not a thing that comes into being out of nothing. It originates in an event.“

— Abraham Joshua Heschel
Context: Faith is not a thing that comes into being out of nothing. It originates in an event. In the spiritual vacancy of life something may suddenly occur that is like the lifting of a veil at the horizon of knowledge. A simple episode may open sight of the eternal. A shift of conceptions, boisterous like a tempest of soft as a breeze may swerve a mind for an instant or forever. For God is not wholly silent and man is not always deaf. God's willingness to call men to His service and man's responsiveness to the divine indications in things and events are for faith what sun and soil are for the plant. "The Holy Dimension", p. 333

„He whose soul is charged with awareness of God earns his inner livelihood by a passionate desire to pour his life into the eternal wells of love. … We do not live for our own sake. Life would be preposterous if not for the love it confers.“

— Abraham Joshua Heschel
Context: He whose soul is charged with awareness of God earns his inner livelihood by a passionate desire to pour his life into the eternal wells of love. … We do not live for our own sake. Life would be preposterous if not for the love it confers. Faith implies no denial of evil, no disregard of danger, no whitewashing of the abominable. He whose heart is given to faith is mindful of the obstructive and awry, of the sinister and pernicious. It is God's strange dominion over both good and evil on which he relies. … Faith is not a mechanical insurance but a dynamic, personal act, flowing between the heart of man and the love of God. "The Holy Dimension", p. 333

„It seems as though we have arrived at a point in history, closest to the instincts and remotest from ideals, where the self stands like a wall between God and man.“

— Abraham Joshua Heschel
Context: It seems as though we have arrived at a point in history, closest to the instincts and remotest from ideals, where the self stands like a wall between God and man. It is the period of a divine eclipse. We sail the seas, we count the stars, we split the atom, but never ask: Is there nothing but a dead universe and our reckless curiosity? Primitive man's humble ear was alert to the inwardness of the world, while the modern man is presumptuous enough to claim that he has the sole monopoly over soul and spirit, that he is the only thing alive in the universe. … But there is a dawn of wonder and surprise in our souls, when the things that surround us suddenly slip off the triteness with which we have endowed them, and their strangeness opens like a gap between them and our mind, a gap that no words can fill. … What is the incense of self-esteem to him who tastes in all things the flavor of the utterly unknown, the fragrance of what is beyond our senses? There are neither skies nor oceans, neither birds nor trees — there are only signs of what can never be perceived. And all power and beauty are mere straws in the fire of a pure man's vision. "The Holy Dimension", p. 329

„Every moment is great, we were taught, every moment is unique.“

— Abraham Joshua Heschel
Context: In my youth, growing up in a Jewish milieu, there was one thing we did not have to look for and that was exaltation. Every moment is great, we were taught, every moment is unique.

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„Denial of transcendence which claims to unveil the truth of being is an inner contradiction, since the truth of being is not within being or within our consciousness of being but rather a truth that transcends our being.“

— Abraham Joshua Heschel
Context: Authentic existence involves exaltation, sensitivity to the holy, awareness of indebtedness. Existence without transcendence is a way of living where things become idols and idols become monsters. Denial of transcendence contradicts the essential truth of being human. Its roots can be traced either to stolidity of self-contentment or to superciliousness of contempt, to moods rather than to comprehensive awareness of the totality and mystery of being. Denial of transcendence which claims to unveil the truth of being is an inner contradiction, since the truth of being is not within being or within our consciousness of being but rather a truth that transcends our being. Ch. 5<!-- Existence and expediency, p. 86 -->

„The rush of reason is an effort of limited strength.
Faith is not the miniature of thinking but its model, not its shadow but its root.“

— Abraham Joshua Heschel
Context: Reason is not the measure of all things, not the all-inclusive power in the inner life of man. The powers of will and emotion, the realm of the subconscious lie beyond the scope of knowledge. The rush of reason is an effort of limited strength. Faith is not the miniature of thinking but its model, not its shadow but its root. It is a spiritual force in man, not dealing with the given, concrete limited, but directed upon the transcendent. It is the spring of our creative actions. "The Holy Dimension", p. 337

„Religion is critique of all satisfaction.“

— Abraham Joshua Heschel
Context: Religion is critique of all satisfaction. Its end is joy, but its beginning is discontent, detesting boasts, smashing idols. It began in Ur Kasdim, in the seat of a magnificent civilization. Yet Abraham said, "No," breaking the idols, breaking away. And so every one of us must begin by saying no to all visible, definable entities pretending to be triumphant, ultimate. The ultimate is a challenge, not an assertion. Dogmas are allusions, not descriptions. "No Religion is an Island", p. 264

„To men of faith He is the light.“

— Abraham Joshua Heschel
Context: In the realm of faith, God is not a hypothesis derived from logical assumptions, but an immediate insight, self-evident as light. To rationalists He is something after which they seek in the darkness with the light of their reason. To men of faith He is the light. "The Holy Dimension", p. 337. Heschel made similar statements in earlier writings: The great insight is not attained when we ponder or infer the beyond from the here. In the realm of the ineffable, God is not a hypothesis derived from logical assumptions, but an immediate insight, self-evident as light. He is not something to be sought in the darkness with the light of reason. He is the light. Man Is Not Alone : A Philosophy of Religion (1951)

Reklama

„The sense of meaning is not born in ease and sloth.“

— Abraham Joshua Heschel
Context: The sense of meaning is not born in ease and sloth. It comes after bitter trials, disappointments in the glitters, foundering, strandings. It is the marrow from the bone. There is no manna in our wilderness. Thought is not bred apart from experience or from inner surroundings. Thinking is living, and no thought is bred in an isolated cell in the brain. No thought is an island. Ch. 5<!-- Manipulation and appreciation, p. 81 -->

„The greatest problem is not how to continue but how to exalt our existence. The call for a life beyond the grave is presumptuous, if there is no cry for eternal life prior to our descending to the grave.“

— Abraham Joshua Heschel
Context: The greatest problem is not how to continue but how to exalt our existence. The call for a life beyond the grave is presumptuous, if there is no cry for eternal life prior to our descending to the grave. Eternity is not perpetual future but perpetual presence. He has planted in us the seed of eternal life. The world to come is not only a hereafter but also a here-now. Man Is Not Alone : A Philosophy Of Religion (1951), Ch. 26 : The Pious Man; Our Destiny is to Aid

„The world ceases to be that which is and becomes that which is available.
It is a submissive world that modern man is in the habit of sensing, and he seems content with the riches of thinghood.“

— Abraham Joshua Heschel
Context: As a result of letting the drive for power dominate existence, man is bound to lose his sense for nature's otherness. Nature becomes a utensil, an object to be used. The world ceases to be that which is and becomes that which is available. It is a submissive world that modern man is in the habit of sensing, and he seems content with the riches of thinghood. Space is the limit of his ambitions, and there is little he desires besides it. Correspondingly, man’s consciousness recedes more and more in the process of reducing his status to that of a consumer and manipulator. He has enclosed himself in the availability of things, with the shutters down and no sight of what is beyond availability. Ch. 5<!-- Disavowal of transcendence, p. 83 -->

„Renewal of prayer calls for a renewal of language, of cleansing the words, of revival of meanings.
The strength of faith is in silence, and in words that hibernate and wait.“

— Abraham Joshua Heschel
Context: One of the results of the rapid depersonalization of our age is a crisis of speech, profanation of language. We have trifled with the name of God, we have taken the name and the word of the Holy in vain. Language has been reduced to labels, talk has become double-talk. We are in the process of losing faith in the reality of words. Yet prayer can happen only when words reverberate with power and inner life, when uttered as an earnest, as a promise. On the other hand, there is a high degree of obsolescence in the traditional language of the theology of prayer. Renewal of prayer calls for a renewal of language, of cleansing the words, of revival of meanings. The strength of faith is in silence, and in words that hibernate and wait. Uttered faith must come out as a surplus of silence, as the fruit of lived faith, of enduring intimacy. Theological education must deepen privacy, strive for daily renewal of innerness, cultivate ingredients of religious existence, reverence and responsibility. "No Religion is an Island", p. 264

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